Dig Dis Sci. 2022 Dec 24. doi: 10.1007/s10620-022-07795-z. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (HP) eradication therapy is an efficient primary prevention method to reduce gastric cancer development. In Japan, biennial endoscopic screening for individuals aged 50 years and older is currently conducted as a national gastric cancer prevention program.
AIMS: We aimed to evaluate which strategy was the most optimal and cost-effective among HP eradication strategy, annual, biennial, and triennial endoscopic screening, and no screening as a national gastric cancer prevention program.
METHODS: We developed a state-transition model for HP eradication strategy, annual, biennial, and triennial endoscopic screening, and no screening using a healthcare payer perspective and a lifetime horizon. We targeted a hypothetical cohort of the Japanese population in their 20 s to 80 s. The main outcomes were costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, gastric cancer cases, and deaths from gastric cancer. We performed one-way, two-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses.
RESULTS: HP eradication strategy was more cost-effective than endoscopic screening at any interval in all age groups. Cost-effectiveness was sensitive to HP infection rate. Cost-effective acceptability curves by Monte Carlo simulations for 10,000 trials demonstrated that HP eradication strategy was 100% cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of US$50,000 per QALY gained in all age groups. Over a lifetime, HP eradication strategy saves US$28.07 billion, increases 37.16 million QALYs, prevents 4.47 million gastric cancer cases, and saves 319,870 lives from gastric cancer.
CONCLUSION: A population-based HP eradication strategy is optimal and cost-effective for a national gastric cancer prevention program in Japan, replacing the current secondary prevention-focused biennial endoscopic screening.
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