A Review of Extraction Methods and Analytical Techniques for Styrene and its Metabolites in Biological Matrices

Biomed Chromatogr. 2022 Jul 2:e5440. doi: 10.1002/bmc.5440. Online ahead of print.


We reviewed the toxicokinetics of styrene to introduce reliable surrogates for biological monitoring of styrene workers. Also, extraction techniques and analytical methods for styrene and its metabolites have been discussed. Sample preparation is the main bottleneck of the analytical techniques for styrene and its metabolites. While some microextraction methods have been developed to overcome such drawbacks, some still have limitations such as long extraction time, fiber swelling and breakage, and the cost and the limited lifetime of the fiber. Among all, microextraction by packed sorbents coupled with high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (MEPS-HPLC-UV) can be the method of choice for determining styrene metabolites. Few studies investigated unchanged styrene in breath samples. Chemical determination in exhaled breath provides new insights into organ toxicity in workers with inhalation exposures and can be considered as a fascinating tool in risk assessment strategies. Taking blood samples is invasive and less accepted by workers than other samples. In contrast, breath analysis is the most attractive method for workers because breath samples are easy to collect and non-invasive, and does not require worker transfer to health facilities. Therefore, developing selective and sensitive methods for determining styrene in breath samples is recommended for future studies.

PMID:35778991 | DOI:10.1002/bmc.5440

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