Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2021 Nov 16. doi: 10.1007/s11748-021-01735-w. Online ahead of print.
A 40-year-old man with high fever, hemoptysis, and fatigue showed a 10-cm mass in the middle and lower lobes of the right lung on computed tomography. Histological examination of transbronchial biopsy specimens showed sheets of small round tumor cells and mild staining for CD99. Primary Ewing sarcoma was suspected, and a trimodality therapy consisting of chemotherapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, and right pneumonectomy with surrounding tissue resection was performed. In surgical specimens, negative outcome of NKX2.2 in immunostaining and EWSR1 rearrangement in fluorescence in situ hybridization did not support the diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma. Positive immunostaining for MDM2 and CDK4 led to a diagnosis of dedifferentiated liposarcoma, which probably originated from an adipose tissue of the right perihilar mediastinum, and then invaded the lungs. The postoperative course was uneventful, without recurrence for more than 16 months.
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