J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2021 Aug 20:dgab618. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgab618. Online ahead of print.
CONTEXT: Maternal cholesterol is important for fetal development. Whether maternal serum total cholesterol (maternal TC) levels in mid-pregnancy are associated with small- (SGA) or large- (LGA) for-gestational-age independent of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy is inconclusive.
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate the association between maternal TC in mid-pregnancy and SGA or LGA.
DESIGN AND SETTING: The Japan Environment and Children’s Study is a nationwide prospective birth cohort study in Japan.
PARTICIPANTS: A total of 37,449 non-diabetic, non-hypertensive mothers with singleton birth at term without congenital abnormalities.
OUTCOME MEASURES: Birth weight for the gestational age <10 percentile and ≥90 percentile were respectively defined as SGA and LGA by the Japanese neonatal anthropometric charts.
RESULTS: The mean gestational age at blood sampling was 22.7±4.0 weeks. After adjustment for maternal age, sex of child, parity, weight gain during pregnancy, pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood glucose levels, household income, and Study Areas, one standard deviation decrement of maternal TC was linearly associated with SGA [odds ratio (OR): 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.20: 1.15-1.25]. In contrast, one standard deviation increment of maternal TC was linearly associated with LGA [OR: 95% CI = 1.13: 1.09-1.16]. Associations did not differ according to pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (p for interaction>0.20).
CONCLUSION: Maternal TC levels in mid-pregnancy were associated with SGA or LGA in Japanese. Maternal TC in mid-pregnancy may help to predict SGA and LGA. Favorable maternal lipid profiles for fetal development must be explored.
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