Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic human health risk assessments of heavy metals contamination in drinking water supplies in Iran: a systematic review

Rev Environ Health. 2022 Oct 3. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2022-0060. Online ahead of print.


The contamination of water due to heavy metals (HMs) is a big concern for humankind; particularly in developing countries. This research is a systematic review, conducted by searching google scholar, Web of Science, Science Direct, PubMed, Springer, and Scopus databases for related published papers from 2010 to July 2021, resulting in including 40 articles. Among the analyzed HMs in the presented review, the average content of Cr, Pb, Ba, Al, As, Zn, and Cd exceeded the permissible limits suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) and 1,053 Iranian standards. Also, the rank order of Hazard Quotient (HQ) of HMs was defined as Cd>As>Cr>Pb>Li for children which means Cd has the highest non-carcinogenic risk and Li has the least. This verifies to the current order As>Cr>Pb>Fe=Zn=Cu>Cd for adults. The corresponded values of HQ and Hazard Index (HI) in most cities and villages were investigated and the results indicated a lower than 1 value, which means consumers are not at non-carcinogenic risk (HQ). Carcinogenic risk (CR) of As in the adult and children consumers in most of the samples (58.82% of samples for both groups) were investigated too, and it was more than>1.00E-04 value, which determines that consumers are at significant CR.

PMID:36181734 | DOI:10.1515/reveh-2022-0060

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