Deep Learning in the Detection of Rare Fractures – Development of a “Deep Learning Convolutional Network” Model for Detecting Acetabular Fractures

Z Orthop Unfall. 2021 Jul 26. doi: 10.1055/a-1511-8595. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Fracture detection by artificial intelligence and especially Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNN) is a topic of growing interest in current orthopaedic and radiological research. As learning a DCNN usually needs a large amount of training data, mostly frequent fractures as well as conventional X-ray are used. Therefore, less common fractures like acetabular fractures (AF) are underrepresented in the literature. The aim of this pilot study was to establish a DCNN for detection of AF using computer tomography (CT) scans.

METHODS: Patients with an acetabular fracture were identified from the monocentric consecutive pelvic injury registry at the BG Trauma Center XXX from 01/2003 – 12/2019. All patients with unilateral AF and CT scans available in DICOM-format were included for further processing. All datasets were automatically anonymised and digitally post-processed. Extraction of the relevant region of interests was performed and the technique of data augmentation (DA) was implemented to artificially increase the number of training samples. A DCNN based on Med3D was used for autonomous fracture detection, using global average pooling (GAP) to reduce overfitting.

RESULTS: From a total of 2,340 patients with a pelvic fracture, 654 patients suffered from an AF. After screening and post-processing of the datasets, a total of 159 datasets were enrolled for training of the algorithm. A random assignment into training datasets (80%) and test datasets (20%) was performed. The technique of bone area extraction, DA and GAP increased the accuracy of fracture detection from 58.8% (native DCNN) up to an accuracy of 82.8% despite the low number of datasets.

CONCLUSION: The accuracy of fracture detection of our trained DCNN is comparable to published values despite the low number of training datasets. The techniques of bone extraction, DA and GAP are useful for increasing the detection rates of rare fractures by a DCNN. Based on the used DCNN in combination with the described techniques from this pilot study, the possibility of an automatic fracture classification of AF is under investigation in a multicentre study.

PMID:34311473 | DOI:10.1055/a-1511-8595

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