Pain. 2022 Sep 15. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000002783. Online ahead of print.
A challenge in clinical, research, and policy spheres is determining whether and how to apply the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-5 Opioid Use Disorder criteria to patients receiving long-term opioid therapy (LTOT) for the management of chronic pain. This study explored perspectives on the merits of creating a new diagnostic entity to characterize the problems that arise for certain patients prescribed LTOT and develop consensus on its definition and diagnostic criteria. We conducted 3 rounds of online surveys and held one discussion-based workshop to explore a new diagnostic entity and generate consensus with subject matter experts (n = 51) in pain and opioid use disorder, including a wide range of professional disciplines. The first survey included open-ended questions and rapid qualitative analysis to identify potential diagnostic criteria. Rounds 2 and 3 involved rating potential diagnostic criteria on a Likert-type scale to achieve consensus. The workshop was a facilitated conversation aimed at further refining criteria. Three-quarters of Delphi panelists were in favor of a new diagnostic entity; consensus was reached for 19 potential diagnostic criteria including benefits of LTOT no longer outweighing harms and a criterion related to difficulty tapering. A subgroup of expert panelists further refined the new diagnostic entity definition and criteria. Consensus on potential criteria for the new diagnostic entity was reached and further refined by a subgroup of experts. This Delphi study represents the opinions of a small group of subject matter experts; perspectives from other experts and additional stakeholder groups (including patients) are warranted.
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