BMC Health Serv Res. 2022 Jun 22;22(1):811. doi: 10.1186/s12913-022-08047-6.
BACKGROUND: Several active ingredients contribute to the purposes and mechanisms of goal-setting in rehabilitation. Active ingredients in the goal-setting process include, interdisciplinary teamworking, shared decision-making, having meaningful and specific goals, and including action planning, coping planning, feedback, and review. Clinicians have expressed barriers and enablers to implementing these active ingredients in rehabilitation teams. Interventions designed to improve goal-setting practices need to be tailored to address context specific barriers and enablers. Attempts to understand and enhance goal-setting practices in rehabilitation settings should be supported using theory, process models and determinant frameworks. Few studies have been undertaken to enhance goal-setting practices in varied case-mix rehabilitation settings.
METHODS: This study is part of a larger program of research guided by the Knowledge to Action (KTA) framework. A multisite, participatory, codesign approach was used in five sites to address three stages of the KTA. (1) Focus groups were conducted to understand barriers and enablers to implementing goal-setting at each site. Following the focus groups three staff co-design workshops and one consumer workshop were run at each site to (2) adapt knowledge to local context, and to (3) select and tailor interventions to improve goal-setting practices. Focus groups were analysed using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and informed the selection of behaviour change techniques incorporated into the implementation plan.
RESULTS: Barriers and enablers identified in this study were consistent with previous research. Clinicians lacked knowledge and understanding of the differences between a goal and an action plan often confusing both terms. Clinicians were unable to demonstrate an understanding of the importance of comprehensive action planning and review processes that extended beyond initial goal-setting. Interventions developed across the sites included staff training modules, a client held workbook, educational rehabilitation service flyers, interdisciplinary goal-based case conference templates, communication goal boards and a key worker model. Implementation plans were specifically established for each site.
CONCLUSIONS: Rehabilitation teams continue to struggle to incorporate a truly client-centred, interdisciplinary model of goal-setting in rehabilitation. Whilst clinicians continue to lack understanding of how they can use aspects of goal-setting to enhance client outcomes and autonomy in rehabilitation settings.
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