Development of a remote-control system for catheterization capable of high-speed force feedback

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg. 2023 Jan 23. doi: 10.1007/s11548-022-02815-9. Online ahead of print.


PURPOSE: There is a growing interest in minimally invasive surgery as interventional radiology (IVR), which decreases the burden on a patient. However, occupational exposure is a problem because the treatment is performed using X-ray fluoroscopic images. This problem can be solved by the development of a teleoperation system, but rapid force presentation is important to perform safe surgery. The purpose of this study is to develop a new teleoperation system that can be controlled at a high speed and can provide feedback force sensation within 20 ms delay.

METHODS: A master-slave-type remote-control system for catheterization was developed. A compact and high-speed force feedback system is realized using a novel electro-attractive material (EAM) device by which the resistance force is generated by the magnitude of the voltage applied. The linear and rotational movement of master is transferred to the slave device by UDP communication with the LAN cable, and the same movement is performed by two motors. The collision force of catheter or guidewire, detected by the sensor inside the slave device, is also transmitted to the master device. Two voltage-based methods for EAM: the ON/OFF and linear control methods, were implemented.

RESULTS: After the collision force is detected by the slave sensor, the voltage is applied to the EAM in the master device for an average of 10.33 ms and 15.64 ms by the ON/OFF and linear control methods, respectively. These delays are less than required 20 ms. The movement of the master was stopped by the resistance force of EAM, and that of the slave was also stopped accordingly.

CONCLUSION: A master-slave-type remote-control system for catheterization that is capable of high-speed force feedback was developed. With a low delay, the developed system achieved the requirements of 20 ms that was aimed for this study. Therefore, this system may facilitate the realization of IVR surgery that is safe for both doctors and patients.

PMID:36689147 | DOI:10.1007/s11548-022-02815-9

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