Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi. 2022 Dec 20;38(12):1126-1132. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn501225-20220616-00235.
Objective: To investigate the hemodynamic changes of the main arteries and veins of the extremities and the heart in patients with hypertrophic scar secondary to extensive burns after pressure treatment, and to analyze the relevant mechanisms. Methods: A retrospective before-after self-control study was conducted. From January 2017 to February 2022, 37 patients with hypertrophic scar secondary to extensive burns who met the inclusion criteria were hospitalized in the Burn Rehabilitation Department of Guangdong Industrial Injury Rehabilitation Hospital, including 25 males and 12 females, aged 23-52 years. The patients were admitted to the hospital within 12 weeks after wound healing, and within one week after admission, rehabilitation therapists, occupational therapists, and tailors custom-made pressure products such as full-body pressure garment, pressure pants, vests, split finger gloves, split finger socks, hoods, and plastic collars, with the pressure at each part maintained at 2.67-4.00 kPa when wearing. Before the first treatment with pressure products (hereinafter referred to as before pressure treatment) and at 1 h of the first treatment with pressure products (hereinafter referred to as 1 h of pressure treatment), color Doppler ultrasonography was performed to check the pulse rate of the axillary artery, the lumen diameter, peak systolic velocity (PSV), and resistance index of the axillary artery and femoral artery on the left side, the lumen diameter, cross-sectional area, and average blood flow velocity of the axillary vein and femoral vein, and the mitral valve E peak, mitral valve A peak, tricuspid valve E peak, aortic valve PSV, and pulmonary valve PSV of the heart; an optical chromatographic skin detector was used to detect the red color, red pigment, and surface brightness of the scar on the back of the hand to reflect the filling and distribution of the scar microvessels. Data were statistically analyzed with paired sample t test. Results: Compared with those before pressure treatment, the PSV of the axillary artery of patients was significantly slowed down at 1 h of pressure treatment (t=55.42, P<0.01); the average blood flow velocity of the axillary vein was significantly accelerated (t=-60.50, P<0.01); the pulse rate, lumen diameter, and resistance index of the axillary artery, as well as the lumen diameter and cross-sectional area of the axillary vein did not change obviously (P>0.05); the average blood flow velocity of the femoral vein was significantly accelerated (t=-80.52, P<0.01); the lumen diameter, PSV, and resistance index of the femoral artery, as well as the lumen diameter and cross-sectional area of the femoral vein had no significant change (P>0.05); the mitral valve E peak and mitral valve A peak of the heart decreased significantly (with t values of 10.71 and 21.96, respectively, P<0.01); the tricuspid valve E peak of the heart increased significantly (t=7.57, P<0.01); the PSV of the aortic valve and pulmonary valve of the heart did not change obviously (P>0.05). At 1 h of pressure treatment, the red color and red pigment values of the scar on the back of the hand of patients were 15.3±1.1 and 16.8±1.2, respectively, which were significantly lower than 24.5±1.3 and 23.8±1.2 before pressure treatment (with t values of 8.32 and 8.04, respectively, P<0.01). The brightness value of the scar surface on the back of the hand of patients at 1 h of pressure treatment was similar to that before pressure treatment (P>0.05). Conclusions: After pressure treatment for the hypertrophic scar in patients secondary to extensive burn, the average blood flow velocity of the axillary vein and femoral vein in patients are obviously accelerated, the PSV of the axillary artery is significantly slowed down, the peak values of mitral valve E and mitral valve A of the heart are significantly decreased, and the tricuspid valve E peak is significantly increased. These hemodynamic changes may be related to the reduction of microvascular blood flow in the local area of scar after systemic pressure treatment.
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