J Hypertens. 2022 Aug 9. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000003198. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate the effects of indoor and outdoor temperature on wintertime blood pressure (BP) among peri-urban Beijing adults.
METHODS: We enrolled 1279 adults (ages: 40-89 years) and conducted measurements in two winter campaigns in 2018-2019 and 2019-2020. Study staff traveled to participant homes to administer a questionnaire and measure brachial and central BP. Indoor temperature was measured in the 5 min prior to BP measurement. Outdoor temperature was estimated from regional meteorological stations. We used multivariable mixed-effects regression models to estimate the within-individual and between-individual effects of indoor and outdoor temperatures on BP.
RESULTS: Indoor and outdoor temperatures ranged from 0.0 to 28 °C and -14.3 to 6.4 °C, respectively. In adjusted models, a 1 °C increase in indoor temperature was associated with decreased SBP [-0.4 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.7 to -0.1 (between-individual; brachial and central BP); -0.5 mmHg, 95% CI: -0.8 to -0.2 (within-individual, brachial BP); -0.4 mmHg, 95% CI: -0.7 to -0.2 (within-individual, central BP)], DBP [-0.2 mmHg, 95% CI:-0.4 to -0.03 (between-individual); -0.3 mmHg, 95% CI: -0.5 to -0.04 (within-individual)], and within-individual pulse pressure [-0.2 mmHg, 95% CI: -0.4 to -0.04 (central); -0.3 mmHg, 95% CI: -0.4 to -0.1 (brachial)]. Between-individual SBP estimates were larger among participants with hypertension. There was no evidence of an effect of outdoor temperature on BP.
CONCLUSION: Our results support previous findings of inverse associations between indoor temperature and BP but contrast with prior evidence of an inverse relationship with outdoor temperature. Wintertime home heating may be a population-wide intervention strategy for high BP and cardiovascular disease in China.
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