Pediatr Neurol. 2021 Oct 19;126:89-93. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2021.10.010. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Fetal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) and dural sinus malformation (DSM) are rare types of fetal cerebral venous pathology that are becoming increasingly recognized as fetal imaging advances. Fetal DSMs are a common source of fetal CSVT, although CSVT may occur without a DSM. The literature on these disorders is limited.
METHODS: Cases of fetal CSVT and DSM were identified retrospectively through a query of the Indiana University Health fetal imaging archive from 2007 to 2021.
RESULTS: Seven cases were identified, all of whom were alive at birth. A DSM was present in six. Treatments after birth included enoxaparin sodium (3), embolization (3), and shunt placements (1). Five cases had documented regression or complete resolution of the thrombus and/or malformation. One was lost to follow-up, one died from complications of hydrocephalus at nine months, one was receiving physical and occupational therapy at last follow-up at three months, one had concern for autism and mild gait abnormality at 21 months, two had concern for speech delay (18 months and 24 months), and one had normal development at most recent follow-up (four years).
CONCLUSIONS: Positive short-term outcomes may occur for some cases of fetal CSVT and DSM. However, risk factors and best treatments are not clear, and long-term outcome data are limited. There is a need for further study.
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