Sci Rep. 2021 Sep 9;11(1):17994. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-97104-x.
We study the properties of Floquet prethermal states in two-dimensional Mott-insulating Hubbard clusters under continuous optical excitation. With exact-diagonalization simulations, we show that Floquet prethermal states emerge not only off resonance, but also for resonant excitation, provided a small field amplitude. In the resonant case, the long-lived quasi-stationary Floquet states are characterized by Rabi oscillations of observables such as double occupation and kinetic energy. At stronger fields, thermalization to infinite temperature is observed. We provide explanations to these results by means of time-dependent perturbation theory. The main findings are substantiated by a finite-size analysis.
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