Rev Environ Health. 2022 Dec 27. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2022-0057. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVES: There are many water types available on the market. They are widely known in public with health claims. The questions are, are those claims are scientifically proven or those are just testimonies from the consumers or overclaimed by the producers. This study aims to systematically review evidences on the health effects of alkaline, oxygenated, and demineralized water in comparison with mineral water among healthy population.
CONTENTS: Data were obtained from databases PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, EBSCO, dan Science Direct since January 2000 until July 2022. There were 10 eligible articles, consisted of two articles on alkaline, four articles on oxygenated, and four articles on demineralized water, that furtherly being analyzed.
SUMMARY: Compared to consumption of mineral water, consumption of alkaline and oxygenated water did not show any significant difference on gut microbiota, urine pH, blood parameter, or fitness parameter. While, consumption of demineralized water in the long term resulted in lower quality of certain nutrient intake.
OUTLOOK: Recent evidences do not prove any additional health effects of alkaline, oxygenated, or demineralized water compared to mineral water. In contrast, demineralized water consumption in the long run was proven to lead to adverse effect.
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