BMC Pulm Med. 2023 Jan 24;23(1):34. doi: 10.1186/s12890-022-02259-6.
BACKGROUND: During the transition from paediatric to adult healthcare there is a gap between asthma guidelines and actual management with decreased healthcare consultations and dispensations of asthma medications after the transition to adult healthcare among young people with asthma. How health-related quality of life (HRQoL) develops during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood is unclear. Our aim was therefore to investigate HRQoL among young people with asthma during the transition to adulthood. Further, to assess if level of asthma control and physical activity influence any potential association between asthma and HRQoL.
METHODS: The study population consisted of 2268 participants from the ongoing Swedish population-based prospective birth cohort BAMSE (Barn/Child, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology). HRQoL was measured using the instrument EQ-5D-3 L and three general questions. The EQ-5D-3 L consists of the EQ-5D descriptive system and the EQ visual analogue scale (EQ VAS). The EQ-5D-3 L instrument and questions on general health, symptoms and treatment of asthma, and lifestyle factors were based on data from follow-ups at 16 and 24 years. Cross-sectional analyses were made.
RESULTS: At the 24-year follow-up, the adjusted median values of EQ VAS were lower compared with at the 16-year follow-up; among both participants with asthma (80 vs. 85, p < 0.01) and those without asthma (80 vs. 87, p < 0.01). At the 24-year follow-up, participants with uncontrolled asthma had a lower adjusted median EQ VAS score than peers with controlled/partly controlled asthma (75 vs. 80, p = 0.03). Further, young adults with asthma who did not fulfil the WHO recommendations on physical activity had lower EQ VAS scores than peers who did (70 vs. 80, p < 0.01).
CONCLUSION: HRQoL is lower in young adulthood than in adolescence. Young adults with asthma having uncontrolled disease or who are physically inactive appear to be particularly vulnerable.
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