Am J Occup Ther. 2021 Nov 1;75(6):7506205130. doi: 10.5014/ajot.2021.049050.
IMPORTANCE: For the first time in recent history, people worldwide have faced severe restrictions in occupations because of the measures adopted by governments to contain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the limitations on participation of occupational therapists and occupational therapy students during “lockdown” and their impact on social determinants of health.
DESIGN: A cross-sectional, descriptive study conducted via an online survey.
PARTICIPANTS: A total of 488 occupational therapists and occupational therapy students in North America, South America, and Europe. Outcomes and Measures: A questionnaire consisting of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and items developed to assess the impact of lockdown on daily life was emailed to occupational therapy professional associations, organizations, and universities between April and June 2020. It was available in English, Spanish, and Portuguese and met all the parameters listed in the Declaration of Helsinki.
RESULTS: The roles and routines of people across the developed world have been affected by lockdown measures. The study shows marked differences between participants in the domains of getting along and life activities, as well as influence on the environment. Moreover, South American participants experienced these difficulties to a greater extent than European participants.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This study quantifies the limitations in the participation of occupational therapists and occupational therapy students and the relationship of occupation to social determinants of health. What This Article Adds: The results of this research corroborate the relationship between health and occupation and highlight elements, such as the environment and context, that are important in occupational therapy. Therapists’ ability to analyze occupation in relation to contextual and cultural factors will benefit clients.
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