Occupational therapy interventions for adults with severe mental illness: a scoping review

BMJ Open. 2021 Oct 29;11(10):e047467. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-047467.


OBJECTIVE: To identify the occupational therapy (OT) interventions in adults with severe mental illness (SMI) most investigated in intervention studies and to describe their characteristics.

DESIGN: Scoping review.

DATA SOURCES: On 17 January 2020, we searched the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science and EMBASE. We also performed a manual search of TESEO doctoral thesis database and of the journals indexed in the first quartile of OT according to the SCImago Journal Rank. We updated our search on 10 March 2021, performing a complementary search on ProQuest database and repeating the search in all sources. The terms included in the search strategy were: schizophrenia, schizotypal personality, delusional, schizoaffective, psychotic, bipolar, major depression, obsessive-compulsive, severe mental, OT and intervention.

STUDY SELECTION: The study screening was peer-reviewed. Inclusion criteria were: (1) OT intervention studies in SMI: experimental, randomised, non-randomised and pilot/exploratory studies; (2) adult population with SMI: schizophrenia, schizotypal personality disorder, delusional disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizoaffective disorder, psychotic disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder; (3) OT identified as a discipline involved in the intervention; (4) English or Spanish language and (5) studies with full text available.

RESULTS: Thirty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. OT interventions were classified in psychosocial, psychoeducational, cognitive and exercise interventions. The most used OT intervention was psychosocial intervention.

CONCLUSION: Psychosocial intervention was the most investigated OT intervention in SMI, followed by psychoeducational, cognitive and exercise interventions. These interventions are usually group interventions in patients with schizophrenia, performed by a multidisciplinary team (in which an occupational therapist collaborates), with 2-3 weekly 60 min sessions and a duration of 3-6 months.

PMID:34716157 | DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-047467

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