Protective effects of natural compounds against paraquat-induced pulmonary toxicity: the role of the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway

Int J Environ Health Res. 2023 Jan 22:1-14. doi: 10.1080/09603123.2022.2163985. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Paraquat (PQ) is a toxic herbicide to humans. Once absorbed, it accumulates in the lungs. PQ has been well documented that the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the main mechanism of its toxicity. Oxidative damage of PQ in lungs is represented as generation of cytotoxic and fibrotic mediators, interruption of epithelial and endothelial barriers, and inflammatory cell infiltration. No effective treatment for PQ toxicity is currently available. Several studies have shown that natural compounds (NCs) have the potential to alleviate PQ-induced pulmonary toxicity, due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. NCs function as protective agents through stimulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathways. Elevation of Nrf2 levels leads to the expression of its downstream enzymes such as SOD, CAT, and HO-1. The hypothesized role of the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway as the protective mechanism of NCs against PQ-induced pulmonary toxicity is reviewed.

PMID:36682065 | DOI:10.1080/09603123.2022.2163985

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