Toxics. 2021 Nov 1;9(11):282. doi: 10.3390/toxics9110282.
Assays of urine biomarkers often use urine creatinine to account for urinary dilution, even though creatinine levels are influenced by underlying physiology and muscle catabolism. Urine osmolality-a measure of dissolved particles including ions, glucose, and urea-is thought to provide a more robust marker of urinary dilution but is seldom measured. The relationship between urine osmolality and creatinine is not well understood. We calculated correlation coefficients between urine creatinine and osmolality among 1375 members of a subcohort of the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Cohort, and within different subgroups. We used linear regression to relate creatinine with osmolality, and a lasso selection procedure to identify other variables that explain remaining variability in osmolality. Spearman correlation between urine creatinine and osmolality was strong overall (ρ = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.89-0.91) and in most subgroups. Linear regression showed that urine creatinine explained 60% of the variability in urine osmolality, with another 9% explained by urine thallium (Tl), cesium (Cs), and strontium (Sr). Urinary creatinine and osmolality are strongly correlated, although urine Tl, Cs, and Sr might help supplement urine creatinine for purposes of urine dilution adjustment when osmolality is not available.
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