Risk of type 2 diabetes after diagnosed gestational diabetes is enhanced by exposure to PM2.5

Int J Epidemiol. 2023 May 25:dyad071. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyad071. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Air pollution and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are both associated with increased diabetes mellitus (DM) occurrence. However, whether air pollutants modify the effects of GDM on the occurrence of DM has been unknown. This study aims to determine whether the effect of GDM on DM development can be modified by exposure to ambient air pollutants.

METHODS: Women with one singleton birth delivery during 2004-14 according to the Taiwan Birth Certificate Database (TBCD) were included as the study cohort. Those newly diagnosed as having DM 1 year or later after childbirth were identified as DM cases. Controls were selected among women without DM diagnosis during follow-up. Personal residence was geocoded and linked with interpolated concentrations of air pollutants into township levels. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) of pollutant exposure and GDM, adjusting for age, smoking and meteorological variables.

RESULTS: There were 9846 women who were newly diagnosed as having DM over a mean follow-up period of 10.2 years. We involved them and the 10-fold matching controls involved in our final analysis. The OR (odds ratio) (95% confidence interval, 95% CI) of DM occurrence per interquartile range increased in particulate matter (PM) smaller than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) was 1.31 (1.22-1.41) and 1.20 (1.16-1.25), respectively. The effects of PM exposure on DM development were significantly higher in the GDM group (OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.84-3.30) than in the non-GDM group (OR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.21-1.40).

CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to high levels of PM2.5 and O3 elevates the risk of DM. GDM acted synergistically in DM development with exposure to PM2.5 but not with that to O3.

PMID:37229603 | DOI:10.1093/ije/dyad071

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