Neurochem Res. 2022 Sep 5. doi: 10.1007/s11064-022-03739-1. Online ahead of print.
Lead (Pb) is considered to be a major environmental pollutant and occupational health hazard worldwide which may lead to neuroinflammation. However, an effective treatment for Pb-induced neuroinflammation remains elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of Pb-induced neuroinflammation, and the therapeutic effect of sodium para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS-Na, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) in rat cerebral cortex. The results indicated that Pb exposure induced pathological damage in cerebral cortex, accompanied by increased levels of inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). Moreover, Pb decreased the expression of silencing information regulator 2 related enzyme 1 (SIRT1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and increased the levels of high mobile group box 1 (HMGB1) expression and p65 nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) phosphorylation. PAS-Na treatment ameliorated Pb-induced histopathological changes in rat cerebral cortex. Moreover, PAS-Na reduced the Pb-induced increase of TNF-α and IL-1β levels concomitant with a significant increase in SIRT1 and BDNF levels, and a decrease in HMGB1 and the phosphorylation of p65 NF-κB expression. Thus, PAS-Na may exert anti-inflammatory effects by mediating the SIRT1/HMGB1/NF-κB pathway and BDNF expression. In conclusion, in this novel study PAS-Na was shown to possess an anti-inflammatory effect on cortical neuroinflammation, establishing its efficacy as a potential treatment for Pb exposures.
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