Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2022 Jun 19:1-17. doi: 10.1080/19396368.2022.2074325. Online ahead of print.
Under normal conditions, to achieve optimal spermatogenesis, the temperature of the testes should be 2-6 °C lower than body temperature. Cryptorchidism is one of the common pathogenic factors of male infertility. The increase of testicular temperature in male cryptorchidism patients leads to the disorder of body regulation and balance, induces the oxidative stress response of germ cells, destroys the integrity of sperm DNA, yields morphologically abnormal sperm, and leads to excessive apoptosis of germ cells. These physiological changes in the body can reduce sperm fertility and lead to male infertility. This paper describes the factors causing testicular heat stress, including lifestyle and behavioral factors, occupational and environmental factors (external factors), and clinical factors caused by pathological conditions (internal factors). Studies have shown that wearing tight pants or an inappropriate posture when sitting for a long time in daily life, and an increase in ambient temperature caused by different seasons or in different areas, can cause an increase in testicular temperature, induces testicular oxidative stress response, and reduce male fertility. The occurrence of cryptorchidism causes pathological changes within the testis and sperm, such as increased germ cell apoptosis, DNA damage in sperm cells, changes in gene expression, increase in chromosome aneuploidy, and changes in Na+/K+-ATPase activity, etc. At the end of the article, we list some substances that can relieve oxidative stress in tissues, such as trigonelline, melatonin, R. apetalus, and angelica powder. These substances can protect testicular tissue and relieve the damage caused by excessive oxidative stress.
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