Tomography. 2022 Jul 4;8(4):1726-1734. doi: 10.3390/tomography8040145.
We aimed to investigate clinical and ultrasound signs of shoulder overuse injuries in professional bullfighters; side-to-side differences (dominant vs. non-dominant); and to determine potential differences according to bullfighters’ categories. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted. Thirty professional and active bullfighters were assessed. A bilateral ultrasound assessment of the subacromial bursa, long biceps head tendon (LHBT), and rotator cuff was performed to determine the presence of bursitis, subluxation, partial or total tendon rupture, tenosynovitis, or calcification. Supraspinatus tendon thickness was measured. Finally, a battery of clinical orthopedic tests (Yergason, Jobe, infraspinatus, Gerber, and bursa tests) were also performed. Most identified ultrasound findings were located in the dominant side, being the presence of bursitis (n = 9; 30%), LHBT tenosynovitis (n = 8; 26.7%), and subscapularis tendon calcification (n = 5; 16.7%) the most prevalent. No side-to-side or between-categories differences were found for supraspinatus tendon thickness (all, p > 0.05). The most frequent positive signs were the infraspinatus test (40.0%), Gerber lift-off test (33.3%), and bursitis, Jobe, and Yergason tests (all, 26.7%). Ultrasound signs were commonly found at LHBT, subacromial bursa, and rotator cuff in professional bullfighters without difference between categories and sides. No side-to-side or between-categories differences were found. Positive clinical test signs suggestive of bursitis, LHBT, and rotator cuff tendinopathy were frequently observed.
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