Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2021 Sep 29:1-14. doi: 10.1080/01942638.2021.1982839. Online ahead of print.
AIMS: Occupational therapy services include measurement and promotion of time organization as important for adolescents’ daily life management and well-being into adulthood. This study examined the internal consistency reliability of the Time Organization and Participation Scale (TOPS) among adolescents and their parents, associations between time organization and age, gender differences in time organization, and agreement levels between adolescents’ and parents’ perceptions of time-organization abilities.
METHODS: Seventy-five adolescents with typical development and their parents completed the TOPS self-report and parent versions.
RESULTS: Both TOPS versions showed high internal consistency (.80-.94). No significant correlations were found between age and time-organization patterns. Girls self-reported significantly more emotional response following disorganization in time. Parents’ total scores explained 52.1% of the variance in their children’s total scores.
CONCLUSIONS: Adolescence, a critical transitional period of preparing for independent adult life, involves a continual interaction between person, occupation, and environment while using skills to organize in time. The TOPS’s self- and parent-reports are reliable and can raise awareness of time-organization deficiencies in daily activities and emotional consequences. The use of the TOPS to assess adolescents’ time-organization abilities can inform intervention design to help adolescents develop an awareness of their time use and foster their daily performance.
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