Chemosphere. 2021 Aug 4;286(Pt 2):131791. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131791. Online ahead of print.
Exposure to acrolein was reported to be related with adverse health effects. However, the associations between acrolein exposure and blood lipids remain largely unknown. We assessed the associations of urinary acrolein metabolites with blood lipids using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and further investigated the existence of mediation by systemic inflammation in the associations. Urinary acrolein metabolites, N-acetyl-S-(carboxyethyl)-l-cysteine (CEMA) and N-acetyl-S-(3-hydroxypropyl)-l-cysteine (3-HPMA), blood lipids, and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured in the NHANES. The associations of urinary acrolein metabolites with blood lipids and dyslipidemia and hs-CRP were estimated by multiple linear and logistic regression models. Mediation analysis was conducted to evaluate the mediating effects of hs-CRP on the associations between urinary acrolein metabolites and blood lipids. We found urinary CEMA+3-HPMA (∑acrolein) was significantly associated with higher levels of serum triglycerides (TG), hs-CRP, and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Each 1-unit increment in ln-transformed level of ∑acrolein was associated with a 0.06 mmol/L increment in TG and 0.02 mmol/L decrement in HDL-C (all P <0.05). A positive dose-response relationship was observed between urinary ∑acrolein and dyslipidemia risk. In addition, hs-CRP significantly mediated the associations of urinary ∑acrolein with serum TG and HDL-C, with mediated proportions of 22.12% and 41.41%, respectively. In conclusion, acrolein exposure is associated with the levels of serum TG, HDL-C, and hs-CRP. Hs-CRP may mediate acrolein-associated alterations of blood lipids. Our results indicated that decreased exposure to acrolein may reduce systemic inflammation and dyslipidemia risk.
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