Sci Rep. 2022 Aug 11;12(1):13702. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-17861-1.
In this research, zirconium-based metal-organic framework was utilized as a novel and efficient porous adsorbent for headspace extraction of Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, and Fenfluramine from the urine samples by a needle trap device (NTD). The Zr-UiO-66-PDC was electrosynthesized at the green conditions and characterized by various analyses such as FT-IR, XRD, FE-SEM, EDS, and elemental mapping techniques. Then, the effective parameters on the NTD efficiency such as salt content, pH, extraction/desorption temperature and time were evaluated and optimized by response surface methodology. The optimal extraction of amphetamine compounds was accomplished in 50 min at 70 ºC at the situation with NaCl content of 27% and pH: 11.90. The limit of detection, and limit of quantification factors were determined to be 0.06-0.09 and 0.5-0.8 ng mL-1, respectively. Furthermore, the precision and accuracy (intra- and inter-day) of the employed procedure in the term of relative standard deviation (RSD) were calculated in the range of 8.0-9.0% and 6.8-9.8%, respectively. Also, the recovery percent of the extracted analytes were concluded in the range of 95.0-97.0% after 10 days from the sampling and storage at 4 °C. Finally, the proposed procedure was involved in the analysis of amphetamine compounds in the real urine samples. These results were proved the proposed Zr-UiO-66-PDC@HS-NTD technique coupled with GC-FID can be used as an eco-friendly, fast-response, sensitive, and efficient drug test procedure for trace analysis of the amphetamine compounds in urine samples.
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